Alphabet

  28 letters

 

 

 

father

ā

ـﺎ

ـﺎ

ا

ا

‘alif

أَلف

1

أَب

Ab

at

a

 

 

أَ

أَ

 

 

 

إِبْن 

Ibn

it

i

 

 

إِ

إِ

 

 

 

أُخت

Ukht

put

u

 

 

أُ

أُ

 

 

 

على

‘alā

 

 

 

 

 

ى

‘alif maqūrah

أَلف مقصورة

 

قرآن

 

 

 

 

 

‘alif maddah

الف مدة

 

باب

bāb

 

b

ـب

ـبـ

بـ

bā’

باء

2

تصديق

taṣdīq

table

ta

ـت

ـتـ

تـ

tā’

تاء

3

سُورَة

sūrah

 

ah

ـة

 

 

ة

tā’ marbūṭah

تاء مربوطة

 

ثلاثة

thalāth

thin

th

ـث

ـثـ

ثـ

thā’

ثاء

4

جهاد

  jihād 

 

j

ـج

ـجـ

جـ

jīm

جـيم

5

حَجّ

ḥajj

 

ـح

ـحـ

حـ

ā’

حـاء

6

جميل

jamīl

José

kh

ـخ

ـخـ

خـ

khā’

خـاء

7

دين

dīn

dog

d

ـد

ـد

dāl

ﺩال

8

ذوق

dhawq

there

dh

ـذ

ـذ

thāl

ذال

9

ركن

rukn

run

r

ـر

ـر

rā’

راء

10

زَوْج

zawj

 

z

ـز

ـز

zāy

زاي

11

سؤال

 

suāl

sun

s

ـس

ـسـ

سـ

Sīn

سـين

12

شيخ

shīkh

ship

sh

ـش

ـشـ

شـ

shīn

شين

13

 

 

 

ـص

ـصـ

صـ

ṣād

صاد

14

 

 

 

ـض‎ 

ـضـ

ضـ

ḍād

ضاد

15

طفلَ

 

 

ـط

ـطـ

طـ

ṭā’

طاء

16

 

 

 

ـظ

ـظـ

ظـ

ẓā’

ظاء

17

عِلم

‘ilm

 

a

ـع

ـعـ

عـ

‘ayn

عين

18

الغيب

ghayb

 

 

ـغ

ـغـ

غـ

ghayn

غين

19

الفصل

faṣl

 

f

ـف

ـفـ

فـ

ف

fā’

فاء

20

قَلْبْ

qalb

 

q

ـق

ـقـ

قـ

qāf

قاف

21

كَاْبْ

kalb

 

k

ـك

ـكـ

كـ

kāf

كاب

22

 

 

 

l

ـل

ـلـ

لـ

lām

لام

23

مُسْلِم

muslim

 

m

ـم

ـمـ

مـ

mīm

ميم

24

نور

nūr

noon

n

ـن

ـنـ

نـ

ن

nūn

نون

25

 

 

hat

h

ـه

ـهـ

هـ

hā’

هاء

26

وجد

wajada

wind

w

ـو

ـو

و

wāw

 

27

رسول

rasūl

una

ū

ـو

ـو

و

 

 

 

 

 

yard

y

ـي

ـيـ

يـ

yā’

ياء

28

 

 

eel

ī

ـي

ـيـ

يـ

 

 

 

 

 If a word begins with a short vowel, the vowel sign cannot simply hang in the air before the next letter. So the vowel sign is placed above or under an alif,

 ta marbuta - usually last letter is silent - but reverts to normal t and pronounced if following letter 

eg 

 

زوجة

zawjah, wife


زوجتي

zawjati, my wife

 

 Connection requires both sides to hold hands.

 

All letters connect backwards, but only 22 of 28 connect forwards. Question re connection is never does the following letter connect backwards (answer is always yes) but does the preceding letter connect forwards?

 

Six only two forms – isolated and connecting backwards

22 = four forms: isolated, connect forward only, connect backward only, connect both

 

 

This occurs

A letter does not connect forward

1) (re all letters) where this is no following letter ie when the last letter of a word; or

2) where letter is one of the six, in any position (six never connect forward).

A letter does not connect backwards

3) all letters - where there is no preceding letter (ie when first letter of a word) or

4) when the preceding letter is one of the six (any position)

 

 

The isolated form occurs when there is no connection either forward or backwards.

Ie both conditions above

Ie 1 + 3 or 4

2 letter is one of the six  + 3 = there is no preceding letter (ie when first letter of a word) =

 

الكتاب

اسم

 

 

1   letter is last + 4 is preceded by one of the six

 

Eg

الآخرة(al-akhira)

2 + 4

2) where letter is one of the six + 4) preceding letter is one of the six (any position)

eg  

الضروري


Ligatures

 

Lam + alif = where lam is not connecting backwards =لا

Lam + alif = where lam connects backwards = سلام

 

 soft / hard

 

 

 

T

h

d

z

s

 


al-qamar, "the moon"

ash-shams"the sun"


  

 

moon = 

 

 

 

sun =