Pronouns

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4sJGgGFkLE

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIWIGmLhO0Y

 

 

 

pronouns take place of noun (and are therefore either the subject or object of a verb)

 

object pronoun = the object of a sentence - the boy saw me / you / him / her / us / you / them - Arabic = suffix of verb

 

subject pronoun = subject of sentence eg I / you / he / she / we / you / they saw the boy

 

possessive pronoun - my, you, his her or their = suffix of noun - same as object pronoun except for I poss pronoun = i, object pronoun = ni

 

 

 

 Demonstrative pronoun: this, these, that, those

 

Recall that هذا  and هذه are demonstrative pronouns that are used with masculine and feminine nouns respectively:

 

 

 

 هذا رجل - This is a man 

 

 هذه إمرأة - This is a woman 

 

 هذه الكلية - This college 

 

 هذا هو الشارع - This is the street 

 

 

 

 

the word "li"; that's the letter lam with a kasra - is a preposition that means to, for, or belonging to, and other things as well. It can be used in a ton of ways. However, regarding possession, yes you would affix an enclitic pronoun to it to denote possession.

 

Keep it mind, though, that Arabic doesn't really have a possessive pronoun the way that English does. What you're actually saying here literally is:

 

 

 

هذا الكتاب لِي

 

hadhā al-kitāb lī = this book is to me 

 

which idiomatically means: this book is mine.

 

 

 

12 pronouns

 

 

 

 

 

1st s, 1st p, 2nd dual, 3rd dual same for m or f; 4 x 1 = 1

 

2s, 3s, 2p, 3p = different for ma and f; 4 x 2 = 8

 

 

 

1s (1)

 

2 s (2)

 

3 s (2)

 

1 p (1)

 

2 p (2)

 

3 p (2)

 

2 dual (1)

 

2 (1)

 

 Subject pronouns (I, you, we, he, she, we, they) - the subject of a sentence.

 

 ṭ ḥ ū ṣ ā ẓ ī ḍ, 

 

وصفاته وأفعاله

 

 

 

fa’āluha

 

أفعال 

 

 

 genitive = him not hum??

 

 

 

أنا من أمريكا

I (m / f)

anā

أَنَا

 

 

you (ms)

anta

أَنْتَ

 

 

you (fs)

anti

أَنْتِ

 

هو مهندس

he / it

huwa

هُوَ

ar-rabaat(u) hiy(a) ‘āṣimahtu al-ma’rribi = Rabat she (is) (the) capital (of) Morocco

الرَّبَاْطُ هِيَ عَاْصِمَةُ الْمَغْرِبِ

she / it

hīya

هِيَ

 

نحن أنجليزي

we (m / f)

nahnu

نَحْنُ

 

 

you (mp)

antum

أَنْتُمْ

 

 

you (fp)

antunna

أَنْتُنَّ

hum ya’arifūna al-jawāba

هُمْ يَعْرِفُوْنَ الْجَوَاْبَ

they (m)

hum

هُمْ

 

هم الألمانية

they (f)

hunna

هُنَّ

 

 

you (dual, m or ب)

antumā

أنتُما

 

 

they (dual, m or ب)

hummā

هُما

 

Object pronouns

 

Object pronouns (me, you, us, him, her, them) are used when you do something directly to someone or something else. In Arabic, these pronouns are suffixes that are attached to the verb:

 ū ṣ ā ẓ ī ḍ

kitābuhu (nominative), kitābahu (accusative), kitābihi (dative).       

 

 

sa'ala

سألَني

kitābī (book)

كتابي

my   

أَنَا

sa'alaka

سألَكَ

kitābuka

كتابُكَ

your (ms)   

أَنْتَ

sa'alaki

سألَكِ

kitābuki

كتابُكِ

your (fs)   

أَنْتِ

sa'alahu

سألَهُ

kitābuhu

كتابُهُ

his    

هُوَ

sa'alahā

سألَها

kitābuhā

كتابُها

her    

هِيَ

sa'alanā

سألَنا

kitābunā

كتابُنا

our  

نَحْنُ

sa'alakum

سأَلَكُمْ 

kitābukum

كتابُكُمْ

your (mp)    

أَنْتُمْ

sa'alakunna

سألَكُنَّ

kitābukunna

كتابُكُنَّ

your (fp)    

أَنْتُنَّ

sa'alahum

سألَهُمْ

kitābuhum

كتابُهُمْ

their (m)    

هُمْ

sa'alahunna

سألَهُنَّ

kitābuhunna

كتابُهُنَّ

their (f) 

هُنَّ

sa'alakumā

سألَكُما

kitābukumā

كتابُكُما

your (dual) 

أنتُما

sa'alahumā

سألَهُما

kitābuhumā

كتابُهُما

their (dual) 

هُما

 

 

 

 

 

 

ismī (name)

إِسْمي

kitābī (book)

كتابي

my   

أَنَا

ismuka

إِسْمُكَ

kitābuka

كتابُكَ

your (ms)   

أَنْتَ

ismuki

إِسْمُكِ

kitābuki

كتابُكِ

your (fs)   

أَنْتِ

ismuhu

إِسْمُهُ

kitābuhu

كتابُهُ

his    

هُوَ

ismuhā

إِسْمُها

kitābuhā

كتابُها

her    

هِيَ

ismunā

إِسْمُنا

kitābunā

كتابُنا

our  

نَحْنُ

ismukum

إِسْمُكُمْ

kitābukum

كتابُكُمْ

your (mp)    

أَنْتُمْ

ismukunna

إِسْمُكُنَّ

kitābukunna

كتابُكُنَّ

your (fp)    

أَنْتُنَّ

ismuhum

إِسْمُهُمْ

kitābuhum

كتابُهُمْ

their (m)    

هُمْ

ismuhunna

إِسْمُهُنَّ

kitābuhunna

كتابُهُنَّ

their (f) 

هُنَّ

ismukumā

إِسْمُكُما

kitābukumā

كتابُكُما

your (dual) 

أنتُما

ismuhumā

إِسْمُهُما

kitābuhumā

كتابُهُما

their (dual) 

هُما

 

 

 

 

  لا أعرفه -  I don't know him 

لا أعرفها -  I don't know her 

 

 

 

He asked me

sa'alanī

سألَني

my book  

kitābī

كتابي

 

He asked you

sa'alaka

سألَكَ

your (ms) book  

kitābuka

كتابُكَ

He asked you

sa'alaki

سألَكِ

your (fs) book  

kitābuki

كتابُكِ

He asked him

sa'alahu

سألَهُ

his book  

kitābuhu

كتابُهُ

He asked her

 

sa'ala

سألَها

her book  

kitābuhā

كتابُها

He asked us

 

sa'alanā

سألَنا

our book  

kitābunā

كتابُنا

He asked you (mp)

 

sa'alakum

سأَلَكُمْ

your (mp) book  

kitābukum

كتابُكُمْ

He asked you (fp)

 

sa'alakunna

سألَكُنَّ

your (fp) book  

kitābukunna

كتابُكُنَّ

He asked them (m)

sa'alahum

سألَهُمْ

their (m) book  

kitābuhum

كتابُهُمْ

He asked them (f)

sa'alahunna

سألَهُنَّ

their (f) book  

kitābuhunna

كتابُهُنَّ 

He asked you (dual)

sa'alakumā

سألَكُما

Your (dual) book

kitābukumā

كتابُكُما

He asked them (dual)

sa'alahumā

سألَهُما

their (dual) book

kitābuhumā

كتابُهما

 

سألتهم i asked them


 خلقهم

he created them


صدر sadr, chest


صدره

=

صدرُهُ

adruhu - his chest


 النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم

alihu?

السلام عليكم

kum = you mp